Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracInstall

11/05/16 17:06:47 (5 years ago)



  • TracInstall

    v1 v1  
     1= Trac Installation Guide for 1.0
     5Trac is written in the Python programming language and needs a database, [ SQLite], [ PostgreSQL], or [ MySQL]. For HTML rendering, Trac uses the [ Genshi] templating system.
     7Since version 0.12, Trac can also be localized, and there is probably a translation available in your language. If you want to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default English version.
     9If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhancing the existing translations, then please have a look at [trac:wiki:TracL10N TracL10N].
     11What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms] on the main Trac site, please '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
     13[[PageOutline(2-3,Installation Steps,inline)]]
     15== Dependencies
     17=== Mandatory Dependencies
     19To install Trac, the following software packages must be installed:
     21 * [ Python], version >= 2.5 and < 3.0
     22   (note that we dropped the support for Python 2.4 in this release)
     23 * [ setuptools], version >= 0.6
     24 * [ Genshi], version >= 0.6
     26You also need a database system and the corresponding python bindings. The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
     28==== For the SQLite database #ForSQLite
     30As you must be using Python 2.5, 2.6 or 2.7, you already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python: the `sqlite3` module.
     32Optionally, you may install a newer version of [ pysqlite] than the one provided by the Python distribution. See [trac:PySqlite#ThePysqlite2bindings PySqlite] for details.
     34==== For the PostgreSQL database #ForPostgreSQL
     36You need to install the database and its Python bindings:
     37 * [ PostgreSQL], version 8.0 or later
     38 * [ psycopg2], version 2.0 or later
     40See [trac:DatabaseBackend#Postgresql DatabaseBackend] for details.
     42==== For the MySQL database #ForMySQL
     44Trac works well with MySQL, provided you follow the guidelines:
     46 * [ MySQL] or [ MariaDB], version 5.0 or later
     47 * [ MySQLdb], version 1.2.2 or later
     49Given the caveats and known issues surrounding MySQL, read the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
     51=== Optional Dependencies
     53==== Version Control System
     55===== Subversion
     56 * [ Subversion], 1.5.x or later and the '''corresponding''' Python bindings. Older versions starting from 1.0, like 1.2.4, 1.3.2 or 1.4.2, etc. may still work. For troubleshooting information, check the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
     58There are [ pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. (Good luck finding precompiled SWIG bindings for any Windows package at that listing. [trac:TracSubversion] points you to [ Alagazam], which works for me under Python 2.6.)
     60Note that Trac '''doesn't''' use [ PySVN], neither does it work yet with the newer `ctype`-style bindings.
     62'''Note:''' if using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are currently [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
     64===== Git
     65 * [ Git] 1.5.6 or later.
     67More information is available on the [trac:TracGit] page.
     69===== Others
     71Support for other version control systems is provided via third-parties. See [trac:PluginList#VersionControlSystems] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
     73==== Web Server
     75A web server is optional because Trac has a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server] section below.
     77Alternatively you can configure Trac to run in any of the following environments:
     78 * [ Apache] with
     79   - [ mod_wsgi], see [wiki:TracModWSGI] and
     81   - [ mod_python 3.5.0], see TracModPython
     82 * a [ FastCGI]-capable web server (see TracFastCgi)
     83 * an [ AJP]-capable web
     84   server (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp TracOnWindowsIisAjp])
     85 * a FastCGI and FastCGI-to-WSGI gateway (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisWfastcgi])
     86 * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), but //usage of Trac as a cgi script
     87   is highly discouraged//, better use one of the previous options.
     89==== Other Python Packages
     91 * [ Babel], version 0.9.5, 0.9.6 or >= 1.3
     92   needed for localization support
     93 * [ docutils], version >= 0.3.9
     94   for WikiRestructuredText.
     95 * [ Pygments] for
     96   [TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
     97   [ SilverCity] and/or
     98   [ Enscript] may still be used
     99   but are deprecated and you really should be using Pygments.
     100 * [ pytz] to get a complete list of time zones,
     101   otherwise Trac will fall back on a shorter list from
     102   an internal time zone implementation.
     104{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     105**Attention**: The available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangeable, so please pay attention to the version numbers. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work, please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
     108Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing.
     110== Installing Trac
     112The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [TracStandalone tracd] standalone server are installed along with Trac. There are several methods for installing Trac.
     114It is assumed throughout this guide that you have elevated permissions as the `root` user, or by prefixing commands with `sudo`. The umask `0022` should be used for a typical installation on a Unix-based platform.
     116=== Using `easy_install`
     118Trac can be installed from [ PyPI] or the Subversion repository using [ setuptools].
     120A few command-line examples:
     122 - Install the latest stable version of Trac:
     123 {{{#!sh
     124$ easy_install Trac
     126 - Install latest development version:
     127 {{{#!sh
     128$ easy_install
     130   Note that in this case you won't have the possibility to run a localized version of Trac;
     131   either use a released version or install from source.
     133More information can be found on the [trac:wiki:setuptools setuptools] page.
     135{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     136**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation. More information may be found in [#DeployingTrac Deploying Trac].
     139=== Using `pip`
     141'pip' is an easy_install replacement that is very useful to quickly install Python packages.
     142To get a Trac installation up and running in less than 5 minutes:
     144Assuming you want to have your entire pip installation in `/opt/user/trac`:
     146 -
     147 {{{#!sh
     148$ pip install trac psycopg2
     151 -
     152 {{{#!sh
     153$ pip install trac mysql-python
     156Make sure your OS specific headers are available for pip to automatically build PostgreSQL (`libpq-dev`) or MySQL (`libmysqlclient-dev`) bindings.
     158pip will automatically resolve all dependencies (like Genshi, pygments, etc.), download the latest packages from and create a self contained installation in `/opt/user/trac`.
     160All commands (`tracd`, `trac-admin`) are available in `/opt/user/trac/bin`. This can also be leveraged for `mod_python` (using `PythonHandler` directive) and `mod_wsgi` (using `WSGIDaemonProcess` directive).
     162Additionally, you can install several Trac plugins (listed [ here]) through pip.
     164=== From source
     166Using the python-typical setup at the top of the source directory also works. You can obtain the source for a .tar.gz or .zip file corresponding to a release (e.g. `Trac-1.0.tar.gz`) from the [trac:TracDownload] page, or you can get the source directly from the repository. See [trac:TracRepositories#OfficialSubversionrepository TracRepositories] for details.
     169$ python ./ install
     172You will need root permissions or equivalent for this step.
     174This will byte-compile the Python source code and install it as an .egg file or folder in the `site-packages` directory
     175of your Python installation. The .egg will also contain all other resources needed by standard Trac, such as `htdocs` and `templates`.
     177If you install from source and want to make Trac available in other languages, make sure Babel is installed. Only then, perform the `install` (or simply redo the `install` once again afterwards if you realize Babel was not yet installed):
     179$ python ./ install
     182Alternatively, you can run `bdist_egg` and copy the .egg from `dist/` to the place of your choice, or you can create a Windows installer (`bdist_wininst`).
     184=== Using installer
     186On Windows Trac can be installed using the exe installers available on the [trac:TracDownload] page. Installers are available for the 32 and 64 bit versions of Python. Make sure to use the installer that matches the architecture of your Python installation.
     188=== Using package manager
     190Trac may be available in the package repository for your platform. Note however, that the version provided by the package manager may not be the latest release.
     192=== Advanced `easy_install` Options
     194To install Trac to a custom location, or find out about other advanced installation options, run:
     196$ easy_install --help
     199Also see [ Installing Python Modules] for detailed information.
     201Specifically, you might be interested in:
     203$ easy_install --prefix=/path/to/installdir
     206or, if installing Trac on a Mac OS X system:
     208$ easy_install --prefix=/usr/local --install-dir=/Library/Python/2.5/site-packages
     211'''Note''': If installing on Mac OS X 10.6 running {{{ easy_install }}} will install into {{{ /usr/local }}} and {{{ /Library/Python/2.5/site-packages }}} by default.
     213The above will place your `tracd` and `trac-admin` commands into `/usr/local/bin` and will install the Trac libraries and dependencies into `/Library/Python/2.5/site-packages`, which is Apple's preferred location for third-party Python application installations.
     215== Creating a Project Environment
     217A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is basically a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and other files and directories.
     219A new environment is created using [TracAdmin trac-admin]:
     221$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     224[TracAdmin trac-admin] will prompt you for the information it needs to create the environment, such as the name of the project and the [TracEnvironment#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string]. If you're not sure what to specify for one of these options, just press `<Enter>` to use the default value.
     226Using the default database connection string in particular will always work as long as you have SQLite installed.
     227For the other [trac:DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
     229Since 0.12, Trac doesn't ask for a [TracEnvironment#SourceCodeRepository source code repository] anymore when creating an environment. Repositories can be [TracRepositoryAdmin added] afterwards, and support for specific version control systems is disabled by default.
     231Also note that the values you specify here can be changed later by directly editing the [TracIni conf/trac.ini] configuration file.
     233{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     234**Filesystem Warning:** When selecting the location of your environment, make sure that the filesystem on which the environment directory resides supports sub-second timestamps (i.e. **not** `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX), as the modification time of the `conf/trac.ini` file will be monitored to decide whether an environment restart is needed or not. A too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may result in inconsistencies in Trac < 1.0.2. The best advice is to opt for a platform with sub-second timestamp resolution, regardless of the Trac version.
     237Finally, make sure the user account under which the web front-end runs will have '''write permissions''' to the environment directory and all the files inside. This will be the case if you run `trac-admin ... initenv` as this user. If not, you should set the correct user afterwards. For example on Linux, with the web server running as user `apache` and group `apache`, enter:
     239$ chown -R apache.apache /path/to/myproject
     242The actual username and groupname of the Apache server may not be exactly `apache`, and are specified in the Apache configuration file by the directives `User` and `Group` (if Apache `httpd` is what you use).
     244{{{#!div class=important
     245'''Warning:''' Please only use ASCII-characters for account name and project path, unicode characters are not supported there.
     248== Deploying Trac
     250{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     251**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation.
     253If running `tracd`, the environment variable can be set system-wide or for just the user that runs the `tracd` process. There are several ways to accomplish this in addition to what is discussed here, and depending on the distribution of your OS.
     255To be effective system-wide a shell script with the `export` statement may be added to `/etc/profile.d`. To be effective for a user session the `export` statement may be added to `~/.profile`.
     260Alternatively, the variable can be set in the shell before executing `tracd`:
     262$ PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1 tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     265If running the Apache web server, !Ubuntu/Debian users should add the `export` statement to `/etc/apache2/envvars`. !RedHat/CentOS/Fedora should can add the `export` statement to `/etc/sysconfig/httpd`.
     268=== Running the Standalone Server
     270After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [TracStandalone tracd]:
     272$ tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     275Then, fire up a browser and visit `http://localhost:8000/`. You should get a simple listing of all environments that `tracd` knows about. Follow the link to the environment you just created, and you should see Trac in action. If you only plan on managing a single project with Trac you can have the standalone server skip the environment list by starting it like this:
     277$ tracd -s --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     280=== Running Trac on a Web Server
     282Trac provides various options for connecting to a "real" web server:
     283 - [TracFastCgi FastCGI]
     284 - [wiki:TracModWSGI Apache with mod_wsgi]
     285 - [TracModPython Apache with mod_python]
     286 - //[TracCgi CGI]: should not be used, as it degrades performance//
     288Trac also supports [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP] which may be your choice if you want to connect to IIS. Other deployment scenarios are possible: [trac:TracNginxRecipe nginx], [ uwsgi], [trac:TracOnWindowsIisIsapi Isapi-wsgi] etc.
     290==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory #cgi-bin
     292In order for Trac to function properly with FastCGI you need to have a `trac.fcgi` file and for mod_wsgi a `trac.wsgi` file. These are Python scripts which load the appropriate Python code. They can be generated using the `deploy` option of [TracAdmin trac-admin].
     294There is, however, a bit of a chicken-and-egg problem. The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command requires an existing environment to function, but complains if the deploy directory already exists. This is a problem, because environments are often stored in a subdirectory of the deploy. The solution is to do something like this:
     296$ mkdir -p /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project
     297$ trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project initenv
     298$ trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project deploy /tmp/deploy
     299$ mv /tmp/deploy/* /usr/share/trac
     302Don't forget to check that the web server has the execution right on scripts in the `/usr/share/trac/cgi-bin` directory.
     304==== Mapping Static Resources
     306Without additional configuration, Trac will handle requests for static resources such as stylesheets and images. For anything other than a TracStandalone deployment, this is not optimal as the web server can be set up to directly serve the static resources. For CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' as it causes abysmal performance.
     308Web servers such as [ Apache] allow you to create //Aliases// to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect their location on the file system. We can map requests for static resources directly to directories on the file system, to avoid Trac processing the requests.
     310There are two primary URL paths for static resources: `/chrome/common` and `/chrome/site`. Plugins can add their own resources, usually accessible at the `/chrome/<plugin>` path.
     312A single `/chrome` alias can used if the static resources are extracted for all plugins. This means that the `deploy` command must be executed after installing or updating a plugin that provides static resources, or after modifying resources in the `$env/htdocs` directory. This is probably appropriate for most installations but may not be what you want if, for example, you wish to upload plugins through the //Plugins// administration page.
     314The resources are extracted using the [TracAdmin trac-admin]` <environment> deploy` command:
     317The target `<directory>` will contain an `htdocs` directory with:
     318 - `common/` - the static resources of Trac
     319 - `site/` - a copy of the environment's `htdocs/` directory
     320 - `shared` - the static resources shared by multiple Trac environments, with a location defined by the `[inherit]` `htdocs_dir` option
     321 - `<plugin>/` - one directory for each resource directory provided by the plugins enabled for this environment
     323The example that follows will create a single `/chrome` alias. If that isn't the correct approach for your installation you simply need to create more specific aliases:
     325Alias /trac/chrome/common /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
     326Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/trac/htdocs/site
     327Alias /trac/chrome/shared /path/to/trac/htdocs/shared
     328Alias /trac/chrome/<plugin> /path/to/trac/htdocs/<plugin>
     331===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` #ScriptAlias-example
     333Assuming the deployment has been done this way:
     335$ trac-admin /var/trac/env deploy /path/to/shared/trac
     338Add the following snippet to Apache configuration, changing paths to match your deployment. The snippet must be placed ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` directive, because those directives map all requests to the Trac application:
     340Alias /trac/chrome /path/to/trac/htdocs
     342<Directory "/path/to/www/trac/htdocs">
     343  # For Apache 2.2
     344  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     345    Order allow,deny
     346    Allow from all
     347  </IfModule>
     348  # For Apache 2.4
     349  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     350    Require all granted
     351  </IfModule>
     355If using mod_python, add this too, otherwise the alias will be ignored:
     357<Location "/trac/chrome/common">
     358  SetHandler None
     362Alternatively, if you wish to serve static resources directly from your project's `htdocs` directory rather than the location to which the files are extracted with the `deploy` command, you can configure Apache to serve those resources. Again, put this ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` for the .*cgi scripts, and adjust names and locations to match your installation:
     364Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/projectenv/htdocs
     366<Directory "/path/to/projectenv/htdocs">
     367  # For Apache 2.2
     368  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     369    Order allow,deny
     370    Allow from all
     371  </IfModule>
     372  # For Apache 2.4
     373  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     374    Require all granted
     375  </IfModule>
     379Another alternative to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common` is having Trac generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [[TracIni#trac-section| [trac] htdocs_location]] configuration setting:
     382htdocs_location =
     385Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources, preferentially cookie-less.
     387Of course, you still need to make the Trac `htdocs/common` directory available through the web server at the specified URL, for example by copying (or linking) the directory into the document root of the web server:
     389$ ln -s /path/to/trac/htdocs/common /var/www/
     392==== Setting up the Plugin Cache
     394Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
     396== Configuring Authentication
     398Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the `REMOTE_USER` variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
     400The process of adding, removing, and configuring user accounts for authentication depends on the specific way you run Trac.
     402Please refer to one of the following sections:
     403 * TracStandalone#UsingAuthentication if you use the standalone server, `tracd`.
     404 * [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] if you use the Apache web server, with any of its front end: `mod_wsgi` of course, but the same instructions applies also for `mod_python`, `mod_fcgi` or `mod_fastcgi`.
     405 * TracFastCgi if you are using another web server with FCGI support, such as Cherokee, Lighttpd, !LiteSpeed, nginx.
     407The following document also contains some useful information for beginners: [trac:TracAuthenticationIntroduction].
     409== Granting admin rights to the admin user
     411Grant admin rights to user admin:
     413$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject permission add admin TRAC_ADMIN
     416This user will have an "Admin" entry menu that will allow you to administrate your Trac project.
     418== Finishing the install
     420=== Enable version control components
     422Support for version control systems is provided by optional components in Trac and the components are disabled by default //(since 1.0)//. Subversion and Git must be explicitly enabled if you wish to use them. See TracRepositoryAdmin for more details.
     424The version control systems are enabled by adding the following to the `[components]` section of your [TracIni#components-section trac.ini], or enabling the components in the "Plugins" admin panel:
     428tracopt.versioncontrol.svn.* = enabled
     433tracopt.versioncontrol.git.* = enabled
     436After enabling the components, repositories can be configured through the //Repositories// admin panel or by editing [TracIni#repositories-section trac.ini]. Automatic changeset references can be inserted as ticket comments by configuring [TracRepositoryAdmin#Automaticchangesetreferencesintickets CommitTicketUpdater].
     438=== Using Trac
     440Once you have your Trac site up and running, you should be able to create tickets, view the timeline, browse your version control repository if configured, etc.
     442Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
     444'' Enjoy! ''
     446[trac:TracTeam The Trac Team]
     449See also: [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], TracGuide, TracUpgrade, TracPermissions